The History Of Knitting – A Look At Wonderful Knitting History

The history of knitting is fascinating! I share knitting throughout time, knitting history and culture, and who invented knitting.

Knitting History Feat Img

The History Of Knitting

Wondering who invented knitting and what the craft’s roots are? Or the equipment used? Knitting, like other craft hobbies, has a rich past. I learned so much researching this. I hope you do too.

I reviewed and updated this post on August 19, 2022.

Table Of Contents

Ancient knitted socks at the Petrie Museum of Archaeology London
At the Petrie Museum of Archaeology London, I was fascinated by these Egyptian socks created with Nalbinding.

Looking for gifts for the knitter who has everything?

Early Origins of Knitting

The origins are hard to place. It happened across the world at different times. No one knows who invented knitting.

Most recorded works it has Middle East origins, spreading to other countries via trade routes. People favored the elaborate Arabic-influenced knitting styles.

Origins of knitting in Arabic areas are traced back to anglers, who used the technique to create nets. The oldest known knitted object and pieces come from Egypt – socks from the 11th century CE. These socks use the purl stitch and detailed colorwork.

Looking to learn something? Read through my guide to arm knitting (misspelled as arm kniting.)

Knitting originated in Egypt between 500 AD & 1200 AD. In the same tomb, the socks were found, other fragments were present. A similar technique is called Nålbinding.

Knitting uses two knitting needles to create loops, and nålbinding uses one to loop, knot and split the fabric, like sewing.

However, they create an identical fabric! Nålbinding was a favored technique until knitting was introduced to Europe, where it fizzled out.

It’s said purl stitches were created before knit stitches. Perhaps people found using two needles easier than one!

This video by We Are Knitters gives an informative introduction to Knitting’s past.

YouTube video

Knitting In Europe Takes Off

Hand knitting history – The earliest known knitted items found in Europe. They were made by Muslims employed by the Spanish Christian Royal Families in the 13th century AD.

Their ability to make high-quality knitted goods like cushion covers and gloves is visible in tombs in a Monastery in Spain. Like Prince Fernando, with beautiful, intricate cushion covers.

The Catholic Spanish found these items extraordinary. Garments and accessories are in catholic church treasuries across Spain.

The textiles skills Muslim crafters from the Middle East brought to Spain influenced Christianity.

Usually brought through trade routes to the Mediterranean, and further trade routes reaching Spain and the UK.

Want huge yarn for arm knitting? Get the best in my review.

Many paintings of the Virgin Mary from the 14th century portray Madonna knitting.

When Did Knitting Start In England?

Knitting became popular in Europe in the 14th century. Findings by archaeologists, like tax lists in cities like London, Oslo, Amsterdam, and Newcastle.

They show the exchange and use of knitted goods spread throughout European nations throughout the 14th century.

Although the purl stitch is in items from Ancient Egypt, the expertise was lost in Europe.

The word “knit” is documented to the 1520s (the 16th century), deriving from the same words giving us “knot.”

Want to make your knitting life easier? Get yourself a wool bowl.

The Oxford English Dictionary (and other sources) traces the word “knit” to the early 16th century.

The first examples with the purl stitch in places other than Egypt appeared in the mid-16th century.

Egyptian knitting only had flat knitting. However, flat knitting in Europe was inspired by framework knitting. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the demand for stockings increased.

Want to try a knitting course? Have a look at my review of Andrea Wong knitting.

She was a great fan of knitted silk stockings, as the fabric was soft. Knitting schools were created to provide income for the poor. This skill became necessary for the lower classes.

In what was to be the United States, the wife of George Washington was a keen knitter and boosted the craft industry.

 Instagram user @KJSRoom image of Knitted Bonnet and Sweater in brown wool
@KJSRoom Knitted Bonnet and Sweater

Knitting Guilds in Europe

The first was set up during the Middle Ages and for men. Men’s knitting guilds timelines cover the 1200s-1700s, declining in the mid-16th century.

If young men wanted to work in a guild and become a Master Knitter, they spent six years in training. Women couldn’t be members.

Three years spent as a trainee and three traveling to countries searching for new techniques and patterns.

It seems like the dream life. Provided it was in our century. 🙂 Middle-age guilds weren’t a walk in the park. Working environments wouldn’t have included central heating or cooling!

After finishing six years of study, the apprentice would return home and undergo an exam to gain entrance. The test was making a

  • Felted cap
  • A pair of stockings or gloves
  • A garment
  • A shirt or waistcoat
  • A knitted carpet!

Apprentices had 13 weeks to finish the exam. They were judged on their mastery, artistry, and good taste.

The Industrial Revolution

The mechanical knitting machine or the stocking frame was created in 1589. The English city of Nottingham was a big producer of machine knitted lace during the Industrial Revolution.

The city’s profits grew with the invention of portable circular knitting machines. During the American Civil War, knitting kept their soldiers warm and protected.

Knitted stockings were in high demand during the civil war. Halfway through the Nineteenth century, most of the knitwear industry hadn’t transitioned to factory machines.

With the improvement of steam-powered machines, machine knitting moved to factories to accommodate larger devices. Machine knitting during the industrial revolution created many fabrics.

This led to the development of machine knitted knitwear on a massive scale, and hand knit fabric fizzed out. Hand knitting in the industry declined.

Many hand knitters were put out of business, but it got popular as a hobby.

 Instagram user @20_2_40_style Vintage Sweater in lime green
@20_2_40_style Vintage Sweater

The 1920’s: The Roaring Twenties Fashion!

The Roaring Twenties saw a massive increase in the popularity of knitwear in the western world.

Knitwear, like pullovers, became a fundamental part of fashion for men, women, and children.

Knitted garments were associated with sports/leisure. High fashion also favored knitted products.

Coco Chanel & The Vogue Mag included patterns in their issues.

The 1920s also witnessed a growth in the popularity of this craft.

WW1 and the trenches caused a shortage of socks and other items for the armed forces.

This lead to governments encouraging those on “The Home Front” to reuse old knitted items and spare wool to make garments for the soldiers.

The World Wars brought a resurgence of knitting.

People were urged to contribute to the war effort and make knitted garments for the troops.

Companies and wool shops profited from the demands, and knitting needles, patterns, yarn, and tools abounded.

Meanwhile, the losing side of the Russian Civil War escaped to China.

They encountered Chinese caravan men, and the Russians passed on the craft of knitting.

These caravan men made items and knit fabric out of camel hair! Knitting spread throughout the rest of the country.

The Great Depression

The prominence of knitwear in the fashion of the ’20s continued. The fashionable clothing range changed.

Innovations became common with the invention of the zip and new synthetic yarn.

The hardship suffered by many during the Great Depression made people return to making clothes by hand.

It was cheaper. Knitting was essential, as socks, underwear, and others needed constant repair.

Patterns were featured in women’s magazines, reflecting the need for hand-knitting. People took a part-time job, handcrafting for profit.

A Little Bit Of History On Vintage Needles

In the past materials such as tortoiseshell, ivory, and walrus tusks were used in the production of knitting needles or knitting pins.

The use of these materials is now banned due to the protection of endangered species. You can find imitation or faux Tortoiseshell vintage needles, they are made of celluloid.

Other materials used in the early 1900s were wood, metal (nickel-plated steel), celluloid (xylonite), casein (made from milk protein) which were often colored, bakelite, and bone.

The process of making bone needles was a smelly and dirty job. Many metal needles were prone to rust and are fine in diameter. Lace knitting was very popular in knitting’s early history.

In the 1930s the circular needle became popular due to the ability to do both flat and circular knitting. Usually with a metal needle tip and flexible plastic cable.

Tools like yarn ballers make knitting easier!

WW2: Britain Knits For Victory!

During World War II (WW2), the British Ministry of Information published a handout – Make, Do, and Mend.

In this pamphlet, the government department offered information on

  • Saving money
  • Being thrifty
  • Using rationed items and supplies
  • Contributing to the war effort

Wool was limited in the second world war. The booklet encouraged people to unpick old woolen garments to re-use.

Patterns were issued so men and women could make these for the army and navy and show their support.

  • Balaclavas
  • Gloves
  • Hats

It gave people back at home a sense of purpose and a chance to contribute to the war effort of the second world war.

Propaganda often depicted a woman knitting, with posters exclaiming the importance of helping the soldiers.

Jane Waller wrote an essay ‘Knitting Fashions Of The 1940s Styles Patterns and History’. It’s worth reading if this period interests you.

The 50’s & The 60’s: Haute Couture

After the war years, nations recovered from the terrible losses they’d suffered. British bred specific sheep to produce high-quality yarn.

Knitting received a boost because new colors and yarn types were introduced. Thousands of patterns fed the market, hungry for designs in bright colors.

Kids learned to knit in schools. It was a useful skill to have. Magazines had good ideas and patterns for

  • Clothing
  • Blankets
  • Toys
  • Bags
  • Curtains
  • Other items

People made things to sell for a profit.

Instagram user @jessiegrowden 80s Sweater in patterns and multiple colors
@jessiegrowden 80s Sweater

1980s and 90s

The popularity of knitting suffered a sharp decline during this period. Sales of patterns and yarn collapsed, as the craft was thought of as old-fashioned. Kids weren’t taught in schools.

The availability and low cost of machine-knitted items from commercial companies made it practical and less expensive..

Tracksuits and sweatshirts were used as sportswear, not knitwear, as was in the 1920s. Knitwear became smart casual than more relaxed attire.

Advances in technology saw digital versions of knitting machines, and some saw the potential as an art form.

21st Century: Knitting Makes a comeback!

In the 21st century, knitting has seen a revival. Hooray! This revival is from the growth of the internet, The “Handmade Revolution,” and interest in DIY Crafts.

The Handmade Revolution is the name given to movements online, focusing on bringing back handcrafts. Often facilitated on forums and Pinterest.

Natural fibers became more accessible and cheaper.

  • Alpaca
  • Angora
  • Merino
  • Mohair
  • Qiviut
  • Silk
  • Yak

Also, plant fibers like

  • Cotton
  • Bamboo
  • Hemp

The yarn industry makes “Novelty Yarns,” using natural and synthetic fibers. The knitting community adapts and blends this wonderful skill. Creating unique trends like arm knitting!

New ideas are forever influenced by the past. The Victoria and Albert Museum has a large exhibit on textiles and knitting. It was interesting!

Hand Knit Wear designers have experienced more exposure via the digital age and social media.

Ravelry is a platform for knitters to learn from each other and for people to showcase and sell their patterns. Jess and Casey, the founders, created a thriving and passionate community.

Savvy people have used platforms like Instagram and Facebook to create a loyal following. Influencers attract serious popularity.

Loom Knitting History

Loom Knitting @ThePreservationSociety
Two Harness Table Weaving Loom: Image credit @ThePreservationSociety

In the history of loom knitting article by Loom Knitting Help, here is what they said.

“Looms used during the Medieval period in France, Britain, Germany, and other European places to knit tasseled caps, shawls, petticoats, blankets, stockings, carryalls, purses, sacks, nets, hammocks, and curtains.”

“It’s believed Guilds’ apprentices knit the rugs needed for their Master on frames (knitting boards) as well.”

Find out more here.

History Of Knitting Machines

Who invented the first knitting machine? William Lee developed a frame with a circular form using a spring and barbed needle in 1589.

The machine William Lee made have needles on a bed of iron and encased in a large wooden structure.

The needle bed held horizontal, and other parts of the machine worked around this. It relied on manual labor to operate. Still, it was much quicker than hand knitting!

It was based on the method of framework knitting, a method of hand knitting on a loom. Nowadays, knitting machines run on electricity and do most of the work.

  • The Brother knitting machine timeline spans from 1954 to the present.
  • The Raschel knitting machine dates back to the 19th century.

For more on the old days of the knitting machine, read this article, “A Short History Of The Knitting Machine.”

Irish Knitting History

Irish knitting is synonymous with Aran knitting and sweaters.

The history of knitting in Ireland encompasses the intricate patterns created on the Aran Islands. Jumper patterns were guarded and kept within the same clan for generations.

Fair Isle Knitting History

Fair Isle Knitwear by Mati Ventrillon Design in blues and white
Fair Isle Knitwear by Mati Ventrillon

Fair Isle knitting originated on the remote island of Fair Isle, one of the Shetland Islands in Scotland. The intricate patterns are famous around the world.

Fair Isle designs are complicated and colorful. The traditional motifs have a long past, and each knitter had their interpretation.

Inspiration for designs and colorwork was found in the Isle’s wild beauty and the lives local people led. Sailors and fishers wore many handmade jumpers.

For more on this, read this article by Exclusively Fair Isle.

Norwegian Knitting History

Mittens by Marianne Skatten Norwegian Knitting
Designer Marianne Skatten’s Reynirmittens Norwegian Knitting (Image shared with permission)
For more great pics, see @marianneskatten on Instagram.

One theory of how knitting came to Norway was through Denmark. In graves dated back to the 15th century, knitting remains were found, like garments. According to customs records, Bergen in Norway was a harbor for importing luxury embroidered and knitted items.

Historical accounts have noted it was an activity associated with the lower/poorer classes. Knitting became more popular. By the end of the 16th century, many people studied knitting to have a useful skill to create income. Norwegian knitting and handknitted Norwegian mitten designs are famous.

Popular Books

Here are excellent titles worth reading.


What about the future? As far as knitters are concerned, knitting is here to stay. Next time you sit down to knit, think of the old days of this wonderful hobby. I’d love to hear anything you know about this. Tell me in the comments section.

Want to read more about this hobby? See the benefits of knitting and why being a lifelong knitter is a wonderful idea here.

Next > Cyber Monday Yarn Deals 2022

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About The Author

Jodie Morgan From Knit Like Granny

Jodie Morgan - (Author and Founder)
Lives In: Chiang Mai, Thailand

Author: Jodie Morgan is a passionate knitter and blogger with 40+ years of experience currently living in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Taught by her mother and wonderful grandmother “Mama”, she fell in love with crafting from a young age. When she’s not knitting, you’ll find her enjoying a cup of coffee with cream, or sharing helpful resources and tips with the online knitting community. Please say hello, or see what she's making on Ravelry.


  1. I’m using this article for a school project, do you happen to know when it was published? Also, who was the author? Is it Jodie Morgan or is she just an Editor on knitlike granny?

    Thank you so much for your time

  2. Nalbinding does not use a “knitting” needle. The fiber is threaded on a sewing type needle and stitches are worked from the fingers.

    • Hi Susan, I didn’t come across that information when I was researching. I must have missed it. Thank you for telling me, that’s very interesting! I’ll add it to the post so others can learn from your knowledge. Thanks again. Cheers, Jodie

  3. A minor correction if I may.

    You note, “The word knit only became listed in the Oxford Unabridged English Dictionary in the 15th century, despite being present since 1400 AD.”

    Nothing was listed in the Oxford English Dictionary in the 15th century, as the OED began publication in 1884. The word “knit” in its current sense is documented to the 1520s (that is, the 16th century), deriving from the same group of words that give us “knot.”

    The OED (and other sources) trace the word “knit” back to the early 16th century.

    • Thanks so much John for taking the time to share this information with me. I appreciate your correction and will adjust my article accordingly. Cheers Jodie


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